Okay, what you should check for daily, is
Engine Oil (The one with the dipstick)
Coolant (DON"T Open when your car has been operated)
Clutch Fluid (If you're driving a manual)
Power Steering/Brake Fluid (Might be together as they basically use the same lubricant)
Battery Water (Unscrew the cap if you know how, if not, use a torch light, shine it on the side of the battery unit, and you should be able to see the level)
Look at the under carriage everytime your vehicle has parked for more than 4-8 hours.
Most workshops will tell you there's no need, as the change you observe won't be visible. But you check this, so if you vehicle is consuming too much of engine oil, there's something wrong with your engine block. If your coolant is always empty, there might be a problem with your pipes. And most importantly, it identifies leaks in your system.
Additionally, check your tyre threading and pressure time after you've driven, and another time before, to ensure that you are aware of your condition, and to prevent any sabotage. Bolts and nuts should be firmly in place. Your tyre should not have any lost wirings sticking out. Rims should not have any dents, or warpping. Your braking pad should be firmly attached, not loose.
Seems like a lot to do for every morning, but like i said, the major benefit of this is to quickly identify leaks or punctures in your system. But if you're not too concerned, then, once a week for all the above mentioned items will do.
If you are planning to go for long distance, then 2 additional steps you need to take.
First, go to a workshop, and get some grease, and grease all your axles, and gear shafts. This is a bit hard to do it yourself, as you'll need to jack the vehicle, and know where are all the axle "nipples" to pump in the grease.
Second, if you're driving a manual, bleed the fuel seperator systems.
Hope that helps
P.S Army Mechanic <-That's me
Oh yea, washing your car helps alot too. It washes any dirt of the vehicle, and especially prevents bird droppings from eating into your paintwork. Waxing your vehicles also adds a layer of protection. And if you're abit not as hardworking to wash then wax, now there's alot of wash+wax available in the market. once a week is fine, or as and when its dirty, if you really don have the time, at least rinse with water, soil will also eat your paint, its acidic or alkilic in nature, forgot which one =P